Publications in Scientific Journals:

M. Aichinger-Rosenberger, R. Weber, N. Hanna:
"Kinematic ZTD Estimation from Train-Borne Single-Frequency GNSS: Validation and Assimilation";
Remote Sensing, 13 (2021), 19; 1 - 25.

English abstract:
Water vapour is one of the most important parameters utilized for the description of state and evolution of the Earth´s atmosphere. It is the most effective greenhouse gas and shows high variability, both in space and time. Thus, detailed knowledge of its distribution is of immense importance for weather forecasting, and therefore high resolution observations are crucial for accurate precipitation forecasts, especially for the short-term prediction of severe weather. Although not intentionally built for this purpose, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have proven to meet those requirements. The derivation of water vapour content from GNSS observations is based on the fact that electromagnetic signals are delayed when travelling through the atmosphere. The most prominent parameterization of this delay is the Zenith Total Delay (ZTD), which has been studied extensively as a major error term in GNSS positioning. On the other hand, the ZTD has also been proven to provide substantial benefits for atmospheric research and especially Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model performance. Based on these facts, the scientific area of GNSS Meteorology has emerged. The present study goes beyond the current status of GNSS Meteorology, showing how reasonable estimates of ZTD can be derived from highly-kinematic, single-frequency (SF) GNSS data. This data was gathered from trains of the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) and processed using the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique. The special nature of the observations yields a number of additional challenges, ranging from appropriate pre-processing and parameter settings in PPP to more sophisticated validation and assimilation methodologies . The treatment of the ionosphere for SF-GNSS data represents one of the major challenges of this study. Two test cases (train travels) were processed using different strategies and validated using ZTD calculated from ERA5 reanalysis data. The validation results indicate a good overall agreement between the GNSS-ZTD solutions and ERA5-derived ZTD, although substantial variability between solutions was still observed for specific sections of the test tracks. The bias and standard deviation values ranged between 1 mm and 8 cm, heavily depending on the utilized processing strategy and investigated train route. Finally, initial experiments for the assimilation of GNSS-ZTD estimates into a NWP model were conducted, and the results showed observation acceptance rates of 30-100% largely depending on the test case and processing strategy.

Zenith Total Delay, GNSS Meteorology, PPP, ERA5-reanalysis, data assimilation, NWP

"Official" electronic version of the publication (accessed through its Digital Object Identifier - DOI)

Electronic version of the publication:

Created from the Publication Database of the Vienna University of Technology.