Publications in Scientific Journals:
V. Oniga, A. Breaban, N. Pfeifer, C. Chirila:
"Determining the Suitable Number of Ground Control Points for UAS Images Georeferencing by Varying Number and Spatial Distribution";
Currently, products that are obtained by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) image processing based on structure-from-motion photogrammetry (SfM) are being investigated for use in high precision projects. Independent of the georeferencing process being done directly or indirectly, Ground Control Points (GCPs) are needed to increase the accuracy of the obtained products. A minimum of three GCPs is required to bring the results into a desired coordinate system through the indirect georeferencing process, but it is well known that increasing the number of GCPs will lead to a higher accuracy of the final results. The aim of this study is to find the suitable number of GCPs to derive high precision results and what is the effect of GCPs systematic or stratified random distribution on the accuracy of the georeferencing process and the final products, respectively. The case study involves an urban area of about 1 ha that was photographed with a low-cost UAS, namely, the DJI Phantom 3 Standard, at 28 m above ground. The camera was oriented in a nadiral position and 300 points were measured using a total station in a local coordinate system. The UAS images were processed using the 3DF Zephyr software performing a full BBA with a variable number of GCPs i.e. from four up to 150, while the number and the spatial location of check points (ChPs) was kept constant i.e. 150 for each independent distribution. In addition, the systematic and stratified random distribution of GCPs and ChPs spatial positions was analysed. Furthermore, the point clouds and the mesh surfaces that were automatically derived were compared with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point cloud while also considering three test areas: two inside the area defined by GCPs and one outside the area. The results expressed a clear overview of the number of GCPs needed for the indirect georeferencing process with minimum influence on the final results. The RMSE can be reduced down to 50% when switching from four to 20 GCPs, whereas a higher number of GCPs only slightly improves the results.
UAS images; DJI Phantom 3 Standard; ground control point; systematic and stratified random distribution; accuracy assessment
"Official" electronic version of the publication (accessed through its Digital Object Identifier - DOI)
Created from the Publication Database of the Vienna University of Technology.