Contributions to Books:

C. Künzer, J. Zhang, A. Hirner, J. Yaorong, Y. Sun:
"Multi-Temporal In-Situ Mapping of the Wuda Coal Fires from 2000 to 2005: Assessing Coal Fire Dynamics";
in: "Spontaneous coal seam fires: Mitigating a global disaster. International Research for sustainable control and management. ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4", issued by: UNESCO Office Beijing; Tsinghua University Press and Springer Verlag, Beijing, 2007, 146 - 165.

English abstract:
This paper presents the results of multi-temporal in-situ coal fire mapping between the years 2000 and 2005 for all major coal bed fires in Wuda Coalfield, North Central China. A four-year mapping time series and local information collected in 2000 and 2001 allowed detailed and quantitative statements on the dynamics of each of the over 20 coal fire zones currently identified for Wuda. Based on these dynamics and our field observations, we propose to classify coal
fires into five different classes - (i) newly ignited fires, (ii) accelerating fires, (iii) consistently burning fires, (iv) slowly burning out fires, and (v) extinct fires. Mapping techniques combined
wide-spread and numerous in-situ thermal point measurements, crack and fissure mapping, vegetation density mapping, and integration of additional parameters such as exhalation minerals, pyrometamorphic rock, ash layers, and underground mine works information. The annual
changes in coal fire dynamics observed in between the field visits were much larger than expected. For protection of valuable coal resources in the syncline, fast and prioritized extinction
activities are imperative.

coal fire, mapping, geology, mining, China

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